Paper on Detecting Arcs and generate G2/G3
I've linked to the Slic3r GitHub issue already a couple of times. Now the paper that is the base for this new implementation has been made public by its author:
He will also release the MatLab source code soon and the Slic3r integration is already in development because the paper was made available for some of their developers beforehand.
UPDATE: Here is the link to his MatLab code