The first thing I would do is pep up the extruder settings a bit. Having the jerk and accelerations set so low on the extruder can cause some issues, especially if you are trying pressure advance at all which I would definitely recommend. On all 3 of my printers (Ender 3, Taz 6 and a custom CoreXY printer which all have duet wifi boards and bondtech extruders) I have instantaneous speed change of 1500 and acceleration of 1500. I don't know if the type extruder that the Ender printers come with stock can handle that high but I would bump them up to maybe 800 each as a start.
The max speeds also seem a little slow, This is what I have set on my Ender 3
M203 X10800.00 Y9000.00 Z300.00 E3000.00 ; Set maximum speeds (mm/min)
I would start off there and see if there is any improvement.
As for minimum layer time, I haven't used cura in quite a long time but I believe all that does is slow down the layer overall and not make it hang there.